728x90

Pregnancy

Also known as gravidity or gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. It usually lasts around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP) and ends in childbirth. This is just over nine lunar months, where each month is about 29½ days. When measured from conception it is about 38 weeks. An embryo is the 1452720709084developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used until birth. Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods, tender breasts, nausea and vomiting, hunger, and frequent urination. Pregnancy may be confirmed with a pregnancy test.

Pregnancy is typically divided into three trimesters. The first trimester is from week one through 12 and includes conception. Conception is when the sperm fertilizes the egg. The fertilized egg then travels down the fallopian tube and attaches to the inside of the uterus, where it begins to form the fetus and placenta. The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death of embryo or fetus). The second trimester is from week 13 through 28. Around the middle of the second trimester, movement of the fetus may be felt. At 28 weeks, more than 90% of babies can survive outside of the uterus if provided high-quality medical care. The third trimester is from 29 weeks through 40 weeks.

Terminology

One scientific term for the state of pregnancy is gravidity (adjective “gravid”), Latin for “heavy” and a pregnant female is sometimes referred to as a gravida. Similarly, the term parity (abbreviated as “para”) is used for the number of times a female carries a pregnancy past 20 weeks of gestation. Twins and other multiple births are counted as one pregnancy and birth. A woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a nulligravida. A woman who is (or has been only) pregnant for the first time is referred to as a primigravida, and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or asmultiparous. Therefore, during a second pregnancy a woman would be described as gravida 2, para 1 and upon live delivery as gravida 2, para 2. In-progress pregnancies, abortions, miscarriages and/ or stillbirths account for parity values being less than the gravida number. In the case of twins, triplets, etc., gravida number and parity value are increased by one only. Women who have never carried a pregnancy achieving more than 20 weeks of gestation age are referred to as nulliparous.

During pregnancy, the woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including cardiovascular, hematologic, metabolic, renal, and respiratory changes. Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and oestrogens rise continually throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle.

 

Pregnancy Symptoms The 3 Trimesters of pregnancy
Alarming Symptoms in pregnancy

 

 

 

 Related Topics

 Ovulation

 Overdue Pregnancy 

 Overdue Delivery Procedures


References:

http://www.pregnancybirthbaby.org.au/

http://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/first-trimester-of-pregnancy#1

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy

http://www.mayoclinic.org/

http://www.whattoexpect.com/pregnancy/

http://www.babycenter.com/pregnancy

728x90