728x90

Topics Under: Snake Bite

Facts About Snakes

Some Facts about Snakes and Snake bite

  • Children are at higher risk for death or serious complications because of their smaller body size.
  • Snakes found in and near water are frequently mistaken as being poisonous.
  • A snake can actually bite for up to an hour after it is dead (from a reflex).
  • Although Australia is home to the largest number of venomous snakes in the world, it averages only one fatal snake bite per year.
  • Not all poisonous snakes are fully charged with venom.
  • Even those that are fully charged do not always inject a lethal dose.

Other factors that influence the possible seriousness of a snake bite include

  • The persons health, size, age, and psychological state.
  • The nature of the bite may also vary, like penetration of one or both fangs, the amount of venom injected, the location of the bite and proximity to major blood vessels.
  • The health of the snake and the interval since it last used its venom mechanism is also important.

These multiple variables make every bite unique. Depending on circumstances, the bite of a “mildly” venomous snake may be life-threatening and that of a “strongly” venomous snake may not.

 

Key facts

  • Though the exact number of snake bites is unknown, an estimated 5.4 million people are bitten each year with up to 2.7 million envenomings.
  • Around 81 000 to 138 000 people die each year because of snake bites, and around three times as many amputations and other permanent disabilities are caused by snakebites annually.
  • Bites by venomous snakes can cause paralysis that may prevent breathing, bleeding disorders that can lead to a fatal haemorrhage, irreversible kidney failure and tissue damage that can cause permanent disability and limb amputation.
  • Agricultural workers and children are the most affected. Children often suffer more severe effects than adults, due to their smaller body mass.

 

 

 

fff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

References:

https://www.firstaidanywhere.com/snake-bite-first-aid.html

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/snakebite-envenoming

Snake Bite Prevention

Many snake bites can be prevented as most snakes are not aggressive toward humans unless they sense danger. Consequently, avoidance of snakes usually prevents a bite, so people should not try to handle, capture or threaten (for example, tease with a stick) any snake. Statistical studies suggest that about 40% of all snake bites in the US occur in people that consumed alcoholic drinks. If a person’s workplace involves areas known to be a habitat of snakes, wearing protective boots, thick pants, and gloves may reduce the chances of a snake bite; or at least it may reduce the bite trauma and the amount of venom distributed.

People can usually avoid snake bites by doing the following:

  • Regularly trim hedges, keep your lawn mowed, and remove brush from your yard and any nearby vacant lots. This will reduce the number of places where snakes like to live.
  • Don’t allow children to play in vacant lots with tall grass and weeds.
  • Avoiding handling snakes in the wild
  • Avoiding trying to kill or capture a snake
  • Avoid keeping venomous snakes
  • Slowly back away from and avoid touching any snake that is encountered.
  • Giving a snake room to get away if one appears
  • Do not pick up a snake or try to trap it.
  • Never handle even snakes dead.
  • Staying away from places where there may be snakes, such as areas with tall grass, shrubs, or piles of rocks
  • When moving through areas with tall grass and weeds, always poke at the ground ahead of you with a long stick or pole to scare any snakes away.
  • Wearing high-top leather boots, thick pants, and gloves at all times when walking through or working in areas of dense vegetation or outdoors.
  • Avoid working outside during the night and in warmer weather, which is when snakes are most active.
  • Be careful about where hands and feet are placed. For example, avoid reaching into spaces, holes, or underneath objects without first being sure a snake is not hiding underneath.
  • Do not lie down or sit down in areas where snakes might be located.
  • Camp only in areas away from swamps, streams, dense foliage, and other places that snakes are known to inhabit.
  • If you see a snake in your home, immediately call the animal control agency in your county.
  • Be aware of snakes that may be swimming in the water or hiding under debris or other objects.
  • If you or someone you know are bitten, try to see and remember the color and shape of the snake.
  • Learn to identify poisonous snakes and avoid them.

Snakes are most active in the spring, early summer, and fall. Most snakebites occur between April and October, when weather is warm and outdoor activities are popular.

After a natural disaster, snakes may have been forced from their natural habitats and move into areas where they would not normally be seen or expected. When you return to your home, be cautious of snakes that may have sought shelter in your home. If you see a snake in your home, immediately call the animal control agency in your county.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

References:

https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/snakebite.html

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15647-snake-bites/prevention

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324007.php

https://www.medicinenet.com/snake_bite/article.htm#can_a_snakebite_be_prevented

familydoctor.org/avoiding-snakebites/

Snake Bite Complications

The complications of venomous snake bites can range from mild to severe and may mimic other human diseases like:

  • Fever
  • Pain and swelling
    (at the bite site)

  • Allergic reaction
  • Infection
    (including methicillin-resistant bacteria)
  • Vision damage
    (from toxin sprays especially)

  • Hemorrhage
  • ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Compartment syndrome
    (localized severe swelling that can damage or destroy nerves and blood vessels, leading to muscle necrosis)

  • Limb loss
  • Gangrene
  • Sepsis
  • Internal bleeding
  • Cardiac damage
  • Respiratory compromise
  • Psychological effects or mental disorders
    (Possible long-term)
  • Death.

 

 

 

fff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Reference:

https://www.medicinenet.com/snake_bite/article.htm#what_are_the_complications_of_a_venomous_snakebite

Snake Bite First Aid

The knowledge of snake bite first aid can be the difference between death and survival for a person that has been bitten.If bitten by a snake, it’s essential to get emergency treatment as quickly as possible.

However, there are some tips that you should also keep in mind:

What TO DO

If You or Someone Else is Bitten by a Snake

Note the Snake’s Appearance

Identification of the snake helps emergency health care professionals to both anticipate the potential symptoms, and it allows for more rapid and appropriate treatment of the venomous snake bite.

A detailed description and a picture of the snake will help identify the type of snake and the type of toxin.

However, do not waste time in transporting the patient to an appropriate medical facility and do not put others in jeopardy of getting bitten.

Note the time of the bite.

So that it can be reported to an emergency room healthcare provider if needed.

Protect the Person

  • Keep the bitten person still and calm. Moving around will make venom spread faster through the body if the snake is venomous.
  • Seek medical attention as soon as possible.
  • Call local Emergency Medical Services (EMS).
  • Don’t allow the victim to walk. Carry or transport them by vehicle.
  • Apply first aid if you cannot get the person to the hospital right away.
  • Lay or sit the person down with the bite below the level of the heart.
  • Remove tight clothing or jewelry/watches because the area around the bite is likely to swell
  • Tell him/her to stay calm and still.
  • Wash the wound with warm soapy water immediately.
  • Cover the bite with a clean, dry dressing.

What NOT TO DO

  • Do not pick up the snake or try to trap it
    This may put you or someone else at risk for a bite.
  • Do not wait for symptoms to appear if bitten
    Rather seek immediate medical attention.
  • Do not apply a tourniquets or constriction bands
    These have not been proven effective, may cause increased tissue damage, and could cost the victim a limb.
  • Do not slash the wound with a knife
    Cutting into the bite site can damage underlying organs, increase the risk of infection
  • Do not suck out the venom
    Sucking on the bite site does not result in venom removal.
  • Do not wait for symptoms to appear if bitten
    Rather seek immediate medical attention.
  • Do not apply ice or immerse the wound in water
    Ice does not deactivate the venom and can cause frostbite
  • Do not drink alcohol
    Alcohol may deaden the pain, but it also makes the local blood vessels bigger, which can increase venom absorption.
  • Do not drink caffeinated beverages
  • Do not give a person medication
    Unless a healthcare professional gives this instruction

 

 

 

fff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

References:

https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/snakebite.html

https://www.healthline.com/health/snake-bites#first-aid

https://www.emedicinehealth.com/snakebite/article_em.htm#first_aid_for_a_snakebite

Snake Bite Treatment

The most important thing to do for a snake bite is to get emergency medical help as soon as possible. A doctor will evaluate the victim to decide on a specific course of treatment.

In some cases, a bite from a venomous snake is not life-threatening. The severity depends on the location of the bite and the age and health of the victim.

If the situation is life threatening, the doctor may administer antivenom. This is a substance created with snake venom to counter the snake bite symptoms. It’s injected into the victim. The sooner the antivenom is used, the more effective it will be.

The main goal is to administer the correct antivenom as soon as possible. Knowing the size, color and shape of the snake can help determine the best treatment for a particular bite.

It helps if the person knows which species of snake bit them, as different snake bites require different types of antivenom.

Antivenoms are made by immunizing a horse or sheep with the venom of a particular snake, then processing the animal’s blood serum (the watery part of the blood), which will contain antibodies capable of neutralizing the effects of venom.

Monospecific antivenoms treat the bite of a specific type of snake, while polyspecific antivenoms can treat bites from a number of snakes found in a particular geographic region.

Treatment of non-venomous snake bite

The treatment of non-venomous snake bites includes local wound care at the site of the bite, removing snake teeth if left in the bite site, attending to any trauma at the bite site, and a tetanus booster if needed. Some wounds may become infected and require additional treatment with antibiotics.

Treatment of venomous snakebite

After a snake bites, there are two phases of treatment.

  1. The emergency treatment is provided on-site and during transport to an appropriate health care facility.

  2. The health care facility stabilizes the patient, administers antivenin if deemed necessary, and provides supportive treatment.

Phase one of snakebite treatment

Many past home remedies, snakebite kits and other first aid treatment methods have been shown to make the effects of the snakebite worse.

Consequently, the CDC has issued guidelines to use after the threat of additional bites to the patient or others is eliminated, about what to DO and what NOT TO DO if a snakebite occurs.

The following are CDC recommendations:

  • Seek medical attention as soon as possible (dial your call local Emergency Medical Services)
  • Try to remember the color and shape of the snake, which can help with identification and treatment of snake venom in the snakebite.
  • Keep still and calm. Moving around will make venom spread faster through the body.
  • Inform your supervisor (if the bite occurs at work).
  • Apply first aid if you cannot get to the hospital right away.
  • Lay or sit down with the bite below the level of the heart in order to slow the spread of venom through the bloodstream.
  • Wash the bite with soap and water.
  • Cover the bite with a clean, loose-fitting dry dressing.
  • Remove tight clothing or jewelry/watches because the area around the bite is likely to swell

 

Do NOT do any of the following:

  • Do not pick up the snake or try to trap it.
  • Do not wait for symptoms to appear if bitten, rather seek immediate medical attention.
  • Do not apply a tourniquet.
  • Do not slash the wound with a knife.
  • Do not suck out the venom.
  • Do not use a suction device to remove venom
  • Do not apply ice or immerse the wound in water.
  • Do not drink alcohol as a painkiller.
  • Do not give a person medication unless a healthcare professional gives this instruction
  • Do not drink caffeinated beverages.

Not included in the CDC recommendation is the bite of the Australian elapid snake, also termed a sea snake, which is emergently treated with a pressure bandage at the bite site with splinting and extremity immobilization. Others suggest no use of electric shocks for any snakebite.

Phase two of snakebite treatment

The second phase of treatment consists of stabilization and supportive care, and when medically indicated, administration of antitoxin (antivenin) specific for the snake species and a tetanus booster vaccine.

What can be expected after treatment for a snake bite?

In most cases, it is necessary to remain in the hospital for up to 24 hours in order to monitor blood pressure and overall health. If blood pressure has fallen, intravenous fluids (through a needle in the arm) may be necessary. If there has been a great loss of blood, a blood transfusion may be needed.

A period of monitoring is also necessary because some people can develop a severe allergic reaction after receiving antivenom. Because of this risk, antivenom should be given only by a trained medical professional.

The time required for complete recovery will depend on the kind of snake bite. In most cases, children can recover from the bite of an adder in one to two weeks. Most adults will take more than three weeks for full recovery but 25% will need one to nine months.

Pain and swelling are common long-lasting effects in the area of the body where the bite occurred.

Outlook for a snake bite

The outlook for a person with a snake bite is highly variable. For a non-venomous snake bite, the outlook is excellent if the wound is cleaned and treated promptly. For a venomous bite, the outlook is good if the victim receives emergency care very soon after the bite has occurred. Healthy adults with shallow bites have a better outlook than children and those with weakened immune systems who have received deep bites.

 

 

 

fff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

References:

https://www.medicinenet.com/snake_bite/article.htm#what_is_the_treatment_for_a_venomous_snakebite

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15647-snake-bites/management-and-treatment

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324007.php

https://www.healthline.com/health/snake-bites#treatment

Snake Bite Diagnosis

Any snakebite needs emergency medicine and evaluation. Identification of fang or bite marks is done, even if the snake is nonvenomous, to determine local trauma or tissue damage at the site of the bite. Identification of the snake type by description or picture, along with the circumstances of the bite and the surrounding environment usually provides the health care professional a working diagnosis.

For example, a snakebite occurring in dry west Texas is likely a rattlesnake bite, while a snakebite in a swampy area of the U.S. is likely a water moccasin, and Tiger snakes (body has bands of colors) are found mainly in Australia and its costal islands. A zookeeper or private snake owner/collector who is bitten will likely know the exact type of snake that caused the bite or toxic spray (spitting cobras).

Diagnostic tests and tools
At present there is only one commercial diagnostic test available that makes it possible to confirm the type of snake venom present in the body of an envenomed patient. This test uses antibodies to recognize specific types of venom produced by different species of snakes.

Other diagnostic tests that use similar approaches are being used experimentally, but there is a need in some regions and countries for commercial tests that can be used to better inform the proper selection of antivenoms to treat patients.
There are however simple tests and diagnostic tools (algorithms or checklists) that can be used to confirm the presence of important clinical signs of snakebite envenoming which indicate the need for early antivenom treatment and, in some cases, can help differentiate the most likely genus or species of snake responsible for the bite.

Spontaneous haemorrhage due to envenoming by some snake species is an SNAKEBITE DIAGNOSTIC TEST_WHO2important clinical indication for antivenom. Diagnosis is aided by a test known as the 20 Minute Whole Blood Clotting Test (20WBCT). A clean, dry glass bottle or vial into which 1-2 millilitres of venous blood is added, is allowed to stand at room temperature for 20 minutes, and is then inverted and the presence or absence of a complete clot is recorded.
Where a blood is present, the test result is negative, whereas if no clot forms and the blood remains liquid, the test result is positive, indicating presence of a coagulopathy and the need for antivenom treatment. Where this test is used it is essential that it be appropriately standardized using uniform glassware, sample volume and temperature, and validated for accuracy using serial donor samples prior to routine use.

 

Diagnostic tools also have considerable potential to better inform the surveillance of snakebite envenoming by enabling retrospective identification in pathology samples of venom immunotypes from various species of snakes. This can improve the reporting of snakebite envenoming and assist in determining optimal antivenom needs for regions.

 

 

 

fff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

References:

https://www.medicinenet.com/snake_bite/article.htm#how_is_a_venomous_snakebite_diagnosed

https://www.who.int/snakebites/treatment/Diagnostic_tests_and_tools/en/

Snake Bite Symptoms

Usually, people know right away if a snake has bitten them. However, these animals can strike quickly and disappear before people have time to react.

Most snake bites can cause pain and swelling around the bite. Those that are venomous may also cause fever, a headache, convulsions, and numbness. However, these symptoms can also occur due to intense fear following the bite.

Bites can cause an allergic reaction in some people, which may include anaphylaxis.

All venomous snakes can deliver dry bites, which are bites that do not inject venom. They do this because they have limited venom stores, so they save venom where possible. According to estimates, 20–25 percent of pit viper bites and 50 percent of coral snake bites are dry bites.

Symptoms of a venomous snakebite

Venomous snakes have two fangs that deliver venom when they bite. A venomous snake bite will usually leave two clear puncture marks. In contrast, a nonvenomous bite tends to leave two rows of teeth marks.

It can be difficult to tell the difference between puncture wounds from venomous and nonvenomous snakes. People should seek medical attention for all snake bites.

The symptoms of a venomous snakebite depend on the type of toxin(s) secreted into the bite or puncture wound, and in part, on how much toxin is present in the tissue.

The types of symptoms produced can be grouped into four groups:

  • Cardiotoxins act on heart tissue.
  • Neurotoxins act on nervous system tissue.
  • Cytotoxins act on tissue at the site of the bite or on tissue that directly absorbs the venom.
  • Hemotoxins act on the blood coagulation system and may cause internal bleeding.

Some toxins may cause more than one of these effects. Because of the various symptoms that can occur with venomous snakebites, the potential signs and symptoms to look for,

Typical symptoms of a venomous snake bite include:

  • A pair of puncture marks at the wound
  • redness and bruising around the bite area
  • swelling around the bite
  • Severe pain at the site of the bite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abnormal blood clotting and bleeding
  • Low blood pressure and shock
  • Labored breathing (in extreme cases, breathing may stop altogether)
  • Disturbed vision
  • Increased salivation and sweating
  • Numbness or tingling around the face and/or limbs, especially in the mouth
  • elevated heart rate
  • dizziness
  • weakness
  • headaches
  • fever
  • thirst
  • diarrhea
  • fainting
  • convulsions

Symptoms from these toxins are somewhat variable and may occur quickly within minutes or they may be delayed for hours, depending on the toxin type and the amount absorbed. In general, small children are more vulnerable to snake bites because the relative larger amount of toxin absorbed in relation to their smaller body size can make the toxin effect more potent. Individuals with medical conditions like heart disease or other chronic diseases are also at higher risk of complications due to snakebite. The quick action of many toxins usually does not allow the immune system a chance to counter the toxin’s effects.

Identification of the snake helps emergency health care professionals to both anticipate the potential symptoms, and it allows for more rapid and appropriate treatment of the venomous snake bite. A detailed description and a picture of the snake will help identify the type of snake and the type of toxin. Do not waste time, however, in transporting the patient to an appropriate medical facility and do not put others in jeopardy of getting bitten.

Rattlesnakes

Rattlesnakes are easily identifiable. They have rings at the end of their tails that shake when they feel threatened. This makes a rattling sound and is a warning for you to back away. Rattlesnakes are the largest of the venomous snakes and account for many of the venomous bites in the U.S. each year. These snakes can be found in nearly any habitat across the country. They like open areas where they can rest in the sun such as rocks, and logs.

Symptoms

Symptoms specific to rattlesnake bites are immediate and include:

  • severe pain
  • drooping eyelids
  • low blood pressure
  • thirst
  • tiredness or muscle weakness

Water moccasins or cottonmouths

The water moccasin is another type of pit viper. This snake is also known as a cottonmouth, because the inside of its mouth is lined with a white, cottony material. The water moccasin’s average size is between 50 to 55 inches. Adults have dark tan to black skin with faint dark brown or black crossbands. Young snakes have brown or orange crossbands with a yellow tail. These snakes are found in the southeastern states, usually in or near water. They don’t scare easily, and will defend themselves should they feel threatened.

Symptoms

Water moccasin bites share symptoms with copperhead bites. Specific symptoms include:

  • immediate pain and symptoms
  • change in skin color
  • shock
  • low blood pressure
  • weakness

Copperheads

Copperheads are reddish or gold in color with hourglass-shaped bands. This snake is typically 18 to 36 inches in length. Copperheads are mostly found in forests, swamps, rocky areas, and rivers in the eastern states (as far as Texas). They are not aggressive. Most copperhead bites occur if you accidentally step on or near one.

Symptoms

Copperhead snake bites share symptoms with water moccasin snake bites. Symptoms can include:

  • immediate pain and symptoms
  • change in skin color
  • shock
  • low blood pressure
  • weakness

Coral snakes

Coral snakes have black, yellow, and red banding and are often confused with non-venomous king snakes. You can distinguish a coral snake by the fact that the red bands touch the yellow bands. They live in the woods, marshes, and sandy areas of the South. Coral snakes typically hide underground and in leaf piles.

Symptoms

Symptoms specific to coral snake bites include:

  • pain that is not immediate
  • symptoms that set in hours after the bite
  • convulsions
  • drooping eyelids
  • change in skin color
  • stomach pain
  • difficulty swallowing
  • headache
  • shock
  • paralysis

 

Symptoms of nonvenomous snake bites

Nonvenomous snakes do not produce toxins. Unlike venomous snakes, they do not have fangs. Instead, they have rows of teeth.

Some symptoms of nonvenomous snake bites include:

  • pain near the bite area
  • bleeding
  • swelling and redness near the bite area
  • itching near the bite area

Without treatment, nonvenomous bites can lead to skin infections and necrosis, or tissue death, so it is essential to look after the wound. Bites can also cause allergic reactions in some people.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed snakebite to its list of neglected tropical diseases. Sub-Saharan Africa has a lack of antivenom supplies; minute-to-minute delays in treatment can affect outcomes; for example in April 2019, a woman died on her wedding day a few hours after a snakebite in Nigeria.

 

 

 

fff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

References:

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15647-snake-bites

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324007.php

https://www.healthline.com/health/snake-bites#rattlesnakes

https://www.medicinenet.com/snake_bite/article.htm#what_are_the_symptoms_of_a_venomous_snakebite

Venomous Snakes

Some Most Venomous (Poisonous) Snakes to Humans

Two major families of snakes account for most venomous snakes dangerous to humans.

The Elapid

elapid2

1. The Elapid family and their snakes includes:

  • The Cobras (Naja and other genera) of Asia and Africa;
    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), a dangerous Asian elapid and longest of the venomous snakes at around 4 m (13 ft).
  • The Mambas (Dendroaspis) of Africa; the kraits (Bungarus) of Asia;
    Black mamba (Dendraspis polylepis), an extremely fast, large, and dangerous African elapid.
  • The Coral snakes (Micrurus) of the Americas; and the Australian elapids, which include the coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus);
    Coral snake (Micrurus fulvius), a shy American elapid that accounts for only about 1% of venomous snakebites in the United States.
  • Tiger snakes (Notechis), king brown snake (Pseudechis australis)
  • Death adders (Acanthophis).

Highly venomous sea snakes are closely related to the Australian elapids.

 

The Viper

viper2


1. The viper familyand their snakes includes:

  • The Rattlesnakes (Crotalus) (Western diamondback rattlesnake and timber rattlesnake);
    Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), an American pit viper, with rattle vibrating. This is one of the most dangerous snakes of North America.
  • Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), American pit viper.
  • Moccasins (Agkistrodon);
    Cottonmouth or water moccasin
     (Agkistrodon piscivorous), American pit viper usually found in or near water.
  • Northern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix), an American pit viper. Bites by this species tend to be less severe than rattlesnake or water moccasin bites but still require urgent medical attention.
  • Lance-headed vipers (Bothrops) of the Americas
  • The saw-scaled vipers (Echis) of Asia and Africa
  • The Russell’s viper (Daboia russellii) of Asia
  • The puff adder (Bitis arietans) and Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica) of Africa.

Most species of the most widely distributed and diverse snake family, the Colubrids, lack venom that is dangerous to humans. Some species, however, including the boomslang (Dispholidus typus), twig snakes (Thelotornis), the Japanese garter snake (Rhabdophis tigrinus), and brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), can be dangerous. Other members of this family, including American garter snakes, kingsnakes, rat snakes, and racers, are harmless to humans.

 

Some venomous snakes also cause symptoms specific to their type.

Rattlesnakes

rattlesnake2

Rattlesnakes are easily identifiable. They have rings at the end of their tails that shake when they feel threatened. This makes a rattling sound and is a warning for you to back away. Rattlesnakes are the largest of the venomous snakes and account for many of the venomous bites in the U.S. each year. These snakes can be found in nearly any habitat across the country. They like open areas where they can rest in the sun such as rocks, and logs.

Symptoms

Symptoms specific to rattlesnake bites are immediate and include:

  • severe pain
  • drooping eyelids
  • low blood pressure
  • thirst
  • tiredness or muscle weakness

Water moccasins or cottonmouths

Western_cottonmouth2

The water moccasin is another type of pit viper. This snake is also known as a cottonmouth, because the inside of its mouth is lined with a white, cottony material. The water moccasin’s average size is between 50 to 55 inches. Adults have dark tan to black skin with faint dark brown or black crossbands. Young snakes have brown or orange crossbands with a yellow tail. These snakes are found in the southeastern states, usually in or near water. They don’t scare easily, and will defend themselves should they feel threatened.

Symptoms

Water moccasin bites share symptoms with copperhead bites. Specific symptoms include:

  • immediate pain and symptoms
  • change in skin color
  • shock
  • low blood pressure
  • weakness

Copperheads

Copperhead2

Copperheads are reddish or gold in color with hourglass-shaped bands. This snake is typically 18 to 36 inches in length. Copperheads are mostly found in forests, swamps, rocky areas, and rivers in the eastern states (as far as Texas). They are not aggressive. Most copperhead bites occur if you accidentally step on or near one.

Symptoms

Copperhead snake bites share symptoms with water moccasin snake bites. Symptoms can include:

  • immediate pain and symptoms
  • change in skin color
  • shock
  • low blood pressure
  • weakness

 

Coral snakes

coral snake2

Coral snakes have black, yellow, and red banding and are often confused with non-venomous king snakes. You can distinguish a coral snake by the fact that the red bands touch the yellow bands. They live in the woods, marshes, and sandy areas of the South. Coral snakes typically hide underground and in leaf piles.

Symptoms

Symptoms specific to coral snake bites include:

  • pain that is not immediate
  • symptoms that set in hours after the bite
  • convulsions
  • drooping eyelids
  • change in skin color
  • stomach pain
  • difficulty swallowing
  • headache
  • shock
  • paralysis

 

 

 

fff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

References:

https://www.emedicinehealth.com/snakebite/article_em.htm#most_venomous_poisonous_snakes_to_humans

https://www.healthline.com/health/snake-bites#rattlesnakes

728x90