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Ebola Facts

  • Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a rare but severe, often fatal illness in humans.
  • Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease caused by Ebolavirus belongs to  Filoviridae virus family includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus.
  • Compared to most illnesses, Ebola virus disease (EVD) has a relatively short history. Health care professionals discovered Ebola in 1976. The 2014–2016 outbreak in West Africa was the largest Ebola outbreak. The current 2018-2019 outbreak in eastern DRC is highly complex, with insecurity adversely affecting public health response activities.
  • The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
  • Ebola viruses are mainly found in primates in Africa and the Philippines; there are only occasional Ebola outbreaks of infection in humans. Ebola virus disease (EVD) occurs mainly in Africa in the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Sudan, Ivory Coast, and Uganda, but it may occur in other African countries.
  • Ebola virus spreads by direct contact with blood and secretions, by contact with blood and secretions that remain on clothing, and by needles and/or syringes or other medical supplies used to treat Ebola-infected patients.
  • Risk factors for Ebola hemorrhagic fever are travel to areas with endemic Ebola hemorrhagic fever and/or any close association with infected people.
  • Early clinical diagnosis is difficult as the symptoms are nonspecific; however, if the patient is suspected to have Ebola, the patient needs to be isolated, and local and state health departments need to be immediately contacted.
  • Definitive diagnostic tests for Ebola virus disease (EVD) are ELISA and/or PCR tests; viral cultivation and biopsy samples may also be used.
  • There is no standard treatment for Ebola virus disease (EVD); only supportive therapy and experimental treatment is available.
  • There are many complications from Ebola virus disease (EVD), causing a high mortality rate (reported mortality rates range from 25%-100% with a reported average rate of 40%-50%).
  • Prevention of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is difficult; early testing and isolation of the patient plus barrier protection (protective equipment) for caregivers (mask, gown, goggles, and gloves) is very important to prevent other people from being infected.
  • Early supportive care with rehydration, symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is no licensed treatment proven to neutralize the virus but a range of blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development.
  • The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks.
  • Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks.
  • Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, infection prevention and control practices, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe and dignified burials and social mobilisation.
  • Researchers are trying to understand the Ebola virus and pinpoint its ecological reservoirs to deduce how Ebola outbreaks occur.
  • Vaccines to protect against Ebola are under development and have been used to help control the spread of Ebola outbreaks in Guinea and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

 

  • After an incubation period of 2 to 21 days, symptoms and signs of Ebola virus disease include
    • Abrupt fever,
    • Headache,
    • Joint pain,
    • Muscle aches,
    • Sore throat, and
    • Weakness.
  • Progression of Ebola symptoms includes
    • Diarrhea,
    • Vomiting,
    • Stomach pain,
    • Hiccups,
    • Rash, and
    • Internal and external bleeding.

 

 

man-carrying-child-Ebola-Overview man-painting-ebola-symptoms
blood-test-lab-ebola-causes patient-ebola-complication
lab-test-ebola-diagnosis patients-hospital-ebola-treatment
man-injection-ebola-vaccination biohazard-dress-ebola-prevention
patient-nurse-drip-ebola-risk-factor girl-medical-checkup-exposed-ebola
biohazard-dress-spray-ebola-transmission patient-drip-recovery-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease

https://www.medicinenet.com/ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_hf/article.htm#ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_virus_disease_facts

 

Ebola After Recovery

In the wake of the 2014 West African outbreak, the largest outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) to date, there are now more EVD survivors than ever before. This large number of survivors provides a chance to better understand how Ebola virus affects people who have recovered, and to advise survivors on how to take care of themselves and their communities.

Recovery from EVD depends on good supportive care and the patient’s immune response. Antibodies to the virus have been detected in some survivors up to 10 years after recovery. Scientists do not know if people who recover from EVD are immune for life or if they may be susceptible to infection from a different species of Ebola virus.

Health Concerns for Survivors of Ebola

In most cases, people who have completely recovered from EVD do not go through a comeback of the illness. However, many survivors suffer from health issues after recovery from Ebola.

The most commonly reported complications are:

  • Tiredness
  • Headaches
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Eye and vision problems (blurry vision, pain, redness, and light sensitivity)
  • Weight gain
  • Stomach pain or loss of appetite

Other health problems can include memory loss, neck swelling, dry mouth, tightness of the chest, hair loss, hearing problems (ringing in the ears and hearing loss), pain or tingling in the hands and feet, inflammation of the pericardium (tissue around the heart), inflammation of one or both testicles, changes in menstruation, impotence, decreased or lost interest in sex, difficulty falling or remaining asleep, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

The timing of onset, severity, and duration of complications among EVD survivors are variable.

Care for people who recovered from EVD

A number of medical complications have been reported in people who recovered from Ebola, including mental health issues. Ebola virus may persist in some body fluids, including semen. Ebola survivors need comprehensive support for the medical and psychosocial challenges they face and also to minimize the risk of continued Ebola virus transmission. To address these needs, a dedicated programme can be set up for care for people who recovered from Ebola.

Ebola virus is known to persist in immune-privileged sites in some people who have recovered from Ebola virus disease. These sites include the testicles, the inside of the eye, and the central nervous system. In women who have been infected while pregnant, the virus persists in the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus. In women who have been infected while breastfeeding, the virus may persist in breast milk.

Relapse-symptomatic illness in someone who has recovered from EVD due to increased replication of the virus in a specific site is a rare event, but has been documented. Reasons for this phenomenon are not yet fully understood.

Studies of viral persistence indicate that in a small percentage of survivors, some body fluids may test positive on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for Ebola virus for longer than 9 months.

More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and transmissible virus in semen over time. In the interim, and based on present evidence,

WHO recommends that:

  • All Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should receive counselling to ensure safer sexual practices until their semen has twice tested negative. Survivors should be provided with condoms.
  • Male Ebola survivors should be offered semen testing at 3 months after onset of disease, and then, for those who test positive, every month thereafter until their semen tests negative for virus twice by RT-PCR, with an interval of one week between tests.
  • Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should either:
    • abstain from all types of sex, or
    • observe safer sex through correct and consistent condom use until their semen has twice tested negative.
  • Having tested negative, survivors can safely resume normal sexual practices without fear of Ebola virus transmission.
  • Based on further analysis of ongoing research and consideration by the WHO Advisory Group on the Ebola Virus Disease Response, WHO recommends that male survivors of Ebola virus disease practice safe sex and hygiene for 12 months from onset of symptoms or until their semen tests negative twice for Ebola virus.
  • Until such time as their semen has twice tested negative for Ebola, survivors should practice good hand and personal hygiene by immediately and thoroughly washing with soap and water after any physical contact with semen, including after masturbation. During this period, used condoms should be handled safely, and safely disposed of, so as to prevent contact with seminal fluids.
  • All survivors, their partners and families should be shown respect, dignity and compassion.

Persistence of Ebola Virus

There is no known risk of getting EVD through casual contact with an Ebola survivor. However, the virus can remain in areas of the body that are immunologically privileged sites for several months after acute infection. These are sites where viruses and pathogens, like the Ebola virus, are shielded from the survivor’s immune system, even after being cleared elsewhere in the body. These areas include the testes, interior of the eyes, and central nervous system, particularly the cerebrospinal fluid. Whether the virus is present in these body parts and for how long varies by survivor.

Scientists continue to study the long-term effects of Ebola virus infection, including viral persistence, to better understand how to provide treatment and care to EVD survivors.

 

 

man-carrying-child-Ebola-Overview man-painting-ebola-symptoms
blood-test-lab-ebola-causes patient-ebola-complication
lab-test-ebola-diagnosis patients-hospital-ebola-treatment
man-injection-ebola-vaccination biohazard-dress-ebola-prevention
patient-nurse-drip-ebola-risk-factor girl-medical-checkup-exposed-ebola
biohazard-dress-spray-ebola-transmission facts-about-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/treatment/survivors.html

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease

 

Ebola Transmission

It is thought that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope or porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.

Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with:

  • Blood or body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of a person who is sick with or has died from Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)
  • Directly touching the body of someone with the infection who has symptoms or recently died – the virus can survive for several days outside the body
  • Objects that have been contaminated with body fluids (like blood, feces, vomit) from a person sick with Ebola or the body of a person who died from Ebola
  • Cleaning up body fluids (blood, stools, urine or vomit) or touching the soiled clothing of an infected person
  • Objects (such as needles and syringes) contaminated with body fluids from a person sick with EVD or the body of a person who died from EVD
  • Having sex with an infected person without using a condom – studies show traces of Ebola may remain in a man’s semen many months after he has recovered
  • Handling or eating raw or undercooked “bushmeat”
  • Infected fruit bats or nonhuman primates (such as apes and monkeys)
  • Semen from a man who recovered from EVD (through oral, vaginal, or anal sex). The virus can remain in certain bodily fluids (including semen) of a patient who has recovered from EVD, even if they no longer have symptoms of severe illness.

Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This occurs through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.

Burial ceremonies that involve direct contact with the body of the deceased can also contribute in the transmission of Ebola.

People remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus.

Body fluids that can transmit Ebola include:

  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Vomit
  • Saliva
  • Mucus
  • Tears
  • Breast milk
  • Urine
  • Semen
  • Sweat

Can Ebola spread through the air

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that infection with Ebola that is airborne is theoretically possible but unlikely. Although Ebola is contagious, careful hygiene and barrier techniques can make the infection low risk for contagion

Unlike respiratory illnesses, which can spread by particles that remain in the air after an infected person coughs or sneezes

Contagious period for the Ebola virus

When someone gets infected with Ebola, they will not show signs or symptoms of illness right away. The Ebola virus CANNOT spread to others until a person develops signs or symptoms of EVD. After a person infected with Ebola develops symptoms of illness, they can spread Ebola to others.

The infected patient sheds infectious viruses in all body secretions (bodily fluids); direct contact with any of these secretions may cause the virus transmission to uninfected individuals.

Additionally, Ebola virus usually is not transmitted by food. However, in certain parts of the world, Ebola virus may spread through the handling and consumption of bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food). There is also no evidence that mosquitoes or other insects can transmit Ebola virus.

Persistence of the virus

There is no known risk of becoming infected with Ebola virus through casual contact with a survivor. However, the virus can remain in certain bodily fluids and continue to spread to others after a person has recovered from the infection. The virus can persist in semen, breast milk, ocular (eye) fluid, and spinal column fluid. Areas of the body that contain these fluids are known as immunologically privileged sites. These are sites of the body where viruses and pathogens, like Ebola virus, can remain undetected even after the immune system has cleared the virus from other sites of the body. Scientists are now studying how long the virus stays in these body fluids among Ebola survivors.

During an Ebola outbreak, the virus can spread quickly within healthcare settings (such as clinics or hospitals). Clinicians and other healthcare personnel providing care should use dedicated medical equipment, preferably disposable. Proper cleaning and disposal of instruments such as needles and syringes are important. If instruments are not disposable, they must be sterilized before additional use.

On dry surfaces, like doorknobs and countertops, the virus can survive for several hours. However, in body fluids, like blood, the virus can survive up to several days at room temperature.

Pets and livestock

Serologic studies show that Ebola virus has been detected in dogs and cats found in Ebola affected areas, but there are no reports of dogs or cats becoming sick with EVD, or spreading the Ebola virus to people or other animals.

Certain exotic or unusual pets (monkeys, apes, or pigs) have been known to be infected with Ebola virus. Pigs are the only species of livestock known to be at risk of infection by an Ebola virus. In the Philippines and China, pigs are naturally infected with Ebola Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), which does not cause illness in people. In a laboratory setting, pigs have developed illness when infected with an extremely high dose of Zaire ebolavirus, but they are not known to be involved in the spread of this virus strain to humans.

 

 

man-carrying-child-Ebola-Overview man-painting-ebola-symptoms
blood-test-lab-ebola-causes patient-ebola-complication
lab-test-ebola-diagnosis patients-hospital-ebola-treatment
man-injection-ebola-vaccination biohazard-dress-ebola-prevention
patient-nurse-drip-ebola-risk-factor girl-medical-checkup-exposed-ebola
patient-drip-recovery-ebola facts-about-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease

https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/transmission/index.html

https://www.medicinenet.com/ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_hf/article.htm#is_the_ebola_virus_contagious

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ebola-virus/expert-answers/can-ebola-spread-through-air/faq-20115575

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/ebola/

 

If Exposed To Ebola

What to do if become ill

Get medical advice as soon as possible if you become ill while travelling abroad. Contact your GP if you become ill after returning from international travel or EVD effected area.

It’s extremely unlikely you have Ebola, but it could be another serious condition such as cholera or malaria, so it’s a good idea to get help in case you need tests or treatment.

Always remember to mention your recent travel history, as this will help identify what the problem could be.

Sometimes your doctor may want to take a sample of your blood, urine or stools so it can be checked for any infections.

Preparing for appointment

The possibility of contracting Ebola or Marburg virus is extremely low unless you’ve had direct contact with the body fluids of an infected person or animal.

If you think that you or a family member may have been exposed to one of the viruses, call your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room immediately. If you’re not referred to an infectious disease specialist, ask to see one.

If you’re from the United States and traveling or working abroad, the nearest U.S. Embassy can help you find a doctor. If you’re from another country, contact your country’s embassy. Be sure to tell your doctor or hospital about your symptoms before your visit so that precautions can be taken to prevent transmission of the virus to others.

What to do

Before your appointment, to help your doctor find the cause of your symptoms, write a list that answers the following questions:

  • What symptoms do you have? When did they start?
  • Have you recently traveled in Africa? If so, what part?
  • If you were recently in Africa, did you hunt or eat monkeys?
  • Did you recently visit caves or underground mines in Africa?
  • Are you employed in a lab that uses monkeys from Africa or the Philippines in research?

If possible, take a family member or friend with you. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all the information provided to you in the hospital or during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something you missed or forgot.

 

 

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blood-test-lab-ebola-causes patient-ebola-complication
lab-test-ebola-diagnosis patients-hospital-ebola-treatment
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patient-nurse-drip-ebola-risk-factor biohazard-dress-spray-ebola-transmission
patient-drip-recovery-ebola facts-about-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

References:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ebola-virus/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20356264

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/ebola/

Ebola Risk Factors

Travel. You’re at increased risk if you visit or work in areas where Ebola virus or Marburg virus outbreaks have occurred.

Association with animals. People are more likely to contract the Ebola or Marburg virus if they conduct animal research with monkeys imported from Africa or the Philippines..

Bush meat. Another potential source of the virus is eating or handling “bush meat.” Bush meat is the meat of wild animals, including hoofed animals, primates, bats, and rodents.

Human-to-human transfer. During Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, health care workers and family members and friends associated with an infected person are at the highest risk of getting the disease.

Researchers who study Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses are also at risk of developing the disease if a laboratory accident occurs.

Handling dead or near to death. Caring for infected patients who are near-death or disposing of bodies of individuals that have recently died of Ebola infection is a very high-risk factor because in these situations, the Ebola virus is highly concentrated in any blood or bodily secretions. . The bodies of people who have died of Ebola or Marburg hemorrhagic fever are still contagious. Caregivers should wear appropriate full-length personal protective equipment.

 

 

man-carrying-child-Ebola-Overview man-painting-ebola-symptoms
blood-test-lab-ebola-causes patient-ebola-complication
lab-test-ebola-diagnosis patients-hospital-ebola-treatment
man-injection-ebola-vaccination biohazard-dress-ebola-prevention
girl-medical-checkup-exposed-ebola biohazard-dress-spray-ebola-transmission
patient-drip-recovery-ebola facts-about-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

https://www.medicinenet.com/ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_hf/article.htm#what_are_risk_factors_for_ebola_hemorrhagic_fever

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ebola-virus/symptoms-causes/syc-20356258

 

Ebola Prevention

Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, including case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilisation. Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures (including vaccination) that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission.

Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors:

  • Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats, monkeys, apes, forest antelope or porcupines and the consumption of their raw meat. Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
  • Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids. Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients. Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home.
  • Outbreak containment measures, including safe and dignified burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola and monitoring their health for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread, and the importance of good hygiene and maintaining a clean environment.
  • Reducing the risk of possible sexual transmission, based on further analysis of ongoing research and consideration by the WHO Advisory Group on the Ebola Virus Disease Response, WHO recommends that male survivors of EVD practice safer sex and hygiene for 12 months from onset of symptoms or until their semen tests negative twice for Ebola virus. Contact with body fluids should be avoided and washing with soap and water is recommended. WHO does not recommend isolation of male or female convalescent patients whose blood has been tested negative for Ebola virus.
  • Avoid areas of known outbreaks. Before traveling to Africa, find out about current epidemics by checking the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
  • Avoid bush meat. In developing countries, avoid buying or eating the wild animals, including nonhuman primates, sold in local markets.

 

Controlling infection in health-care settings

Health-care workers should always take standard precautions when caring for patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis. These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (to block splashes or other contact with infected materials), safe injection practices and safe burial practices.

Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding. When in close contact (within 1 metre) of patients with EVD, health-care workers should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some procedures).

Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.

In addition, after leaving an area affected by EVD, individuals should monitor their health for 21 days; if a person develops any symptoms, he or she should immediately seek medical care and inform the medical caregivers of his or her exposure to Ebola.

 

Handwashing

Ebola virus spreads through direct contact with the blood or body fluids of an infected person. The virus from blood and body fluids can enter the body through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth. In most cases, this happens by touching the face with contaminated hands.

Hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent the spread of dangerous germs, like Ebola virus. Correct hand hygiene lowers the number of germs on the hands and limits the opportunity for spread.

Proper hand hygiene methods are described below.

  • Use alcohol-based hand sanitizer when hands are not visibly dirty. These products usually contain 60-95% ethanol or isopropanol. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer should not be used when hands are visibly soiled with dirt, blood, or other body fluids.
  • Use soap and water when hands are visibly soiled with dirt, blood, or other body fluids and as an alternative to alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Antimicrobial soaps are not proven to offer benefits over  with plain soap (not containing antimicrobial compounds) and water.
  • Use mild (0.05%) chlorine solution in settings where hand sanitizer and soap are not available. Repeated use of 0.05% chlorine solution may cause skin irritation.

 

 

 

man-carrying-child-Ebola-Overview man-painting-ebola-symptoms
blood-test-lab-ebola-causes patient-ebola-complication
lab-test-ebola-diagnosis patients-hospital-ebola-treatment
man-injection-ebola-vaccination patient-nurse-drip-ebola-risk-factor
girl-medical-checkup-exposed-ebola biohazard-dress-spray-ebola-transmission
patient-drip-recovery-ebola facts-about-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease

https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/prevention/handwashing.html

https://www.medicinenet.com/ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_hf/article.htm#is_it_possible_to_prevent_ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_is_there_an_ebola_vaccine

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ebola-virus/symptoms-causes/syc-20356258

 

Ebola Vaccination

There is currently no vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to protect people from Ebola virus.

An experimental vaccine called rVSV-ZEBOV was found to be highly protective against the virus in a trial conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international partners in Guinea in 2015.

Researchers reported on a human clinical trial of rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine that was apparently effective and relatively safe for vaccination against Ebola disease. The researchers used people (contacts) exposed to Ebola patients during the outbreak in a trial following similar procedures (“ring of exposure”) used to eliminate smallpox.

Researchers randomly assigned the Ebola case exposure patient to get the vaccine at day 0 or 21 days later after being identified as a new case exposure. Although many vaccinated people developed side effects of injection-site pain, mild headache, fatigue and muscle pain, most individuals recovered within a few days and none develop long-term problems.

The study involved 11,841 people. The vaccine was 100% effective in patients who obtained the vaccine at day 0 and those day 0 individuals who had no symptoms within 10 days (due to the approximate average incubation period of Ebola).

There were 23 new cases of Ebola in patients who got the vaccine 21 days later. Three adverse events occurred in the vaccinated population; one had a febrile reaction to the vaccine, one experienced anaphylaxis and one experienced flu or flu-like symptoms but all recovered and remained healthy. Consequently, many investigators consider this vaccine to be a safe and effective vaccine. There is a stockpile of 300,000 doses in reserve for future outbreaks.

The vaccine is in limited supply. In the meantime, 300,000 doses have been committed for an emergency use stockpile under the appropriate regulatory mechanism (Investigational New Drug application [IND] or Emergency Use Authorization [EUA]) in the event an outbreak occurs before FDA approval is received. Scientists continue to study the safety of this vaccine in populations such as children and people with HIV

The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine is being used in the ongoing 2018-2019 Ebola outbreak in DRC.
Initial data indicates that the vaccine is highly effective.

Time will tell if the “ring of exposure” method of vaccination will stop the outbreak.

Another Ebola vaccine candidate, the recombinant adenovirus type-5 Ebola vaccine, was evaluated in a phase 2 trial in Sierra Leone in 2015. An immune response was stimulated by this vaccine within 28 days of vaccination, the response decreased over six months after injection. Research on this vaccine is ongoing.

 

 

man-carrying-child-Ebola-Overview man-painting-ebola-symptoms
blood-test-lab-ebola-causes patient-ebola-complication
lab-test-ebola-diagnosis patients-hospital-ebola-treatment
biohazard-dress-ebola-prevention patient-nurse-drip-ebola-risk-factor
girl-medical-checkup-exposed-ebola biohazard-dress-spray-ebola-transmission
patient-drip-recovery-ebola facts-about-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

https://www.medicinenet.com/ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_hf/article.htm#is_it_possible_to_prevent_ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_is_there_an_ebola_vaccine

https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/prevention/index.html

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease

 

 

Ebola Treatment

Standard treatment for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is still limited to supportive therapy. Supportive therapy is balancing the patient’s fluid and electrolytes, maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure, and treating such patients for any complicating infections. Any patients suspected of having Ebola hemorrhagic fever should be isolated, and caregivers should wear protective garments. Currently, there is no specific medical treatment for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD).

The CDC recommends following medical treatments for Ebola-infected patients:

Symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) are treated as they appear. When used early, basic interventions can significantly improve the chances of survival. These include:

  • Providing fluids and electrolytes (body salts) through infusion into the vein (intravenously).
  • Offering oxygen therapy to maintain oxygen status.
  • Using medication to support blood pressure, reduce vomiting and diarrhea and to manage fever and pain.
  • Treating other infections, if they occur.

Recovery from EVD depends on good supportive care and the patient’s immune response. Those who do recover develop antibodies that can last 10 years, possibly longer. It is not known if people who recover are immune for life or if they can later become infected with a different species of Ebola virus. Some survivors may have long-term complications, such as joint and vision problems.

Antiviral Drugs

There is currently no antiviral drug licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat EVD in people. Drugs that are being developed to treat EVD work by stopping the virus from making copies of itself.

Blood transfusions from survivors and mechanical filtering of blood from patients are also being explored as possible treatments for EVD.

Supportive care – rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific symptoms improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. However, a range of potential treatments including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies are currently being evaluated.

In the ongoing 2018-2019 Ebola outbreak in DRC, the first-ever multi-drug randomized control trial is being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs used in the treatment of Ebola patients under an ethical framework developed in consultation with experts in the field and the DRC.

Health care professionals who treat Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)

Because Ebola infections can spread rapidly to others and because patients can easily infect health care workers, the CDC and other agencies recommend that only highly trained personnel treat Ebola patients. This treatment involves high-level barrier techniques to protect all health care professionals (hospital care workers, nurses, doctors, lab technicians, janitors, and hospital infectious-disease-control personnel). Unfortunately, these trained individuals and resources are often not available in the Ebola high-risk areas. Ideally, individuals diagnosed with Ebola in the U.S. should be treated in specific designated treatment centers and treatment monitored by the CDC. Types of specialists who may treat Ebola-infected patients are emergency medicine specialists, infectious disease specialists, critical care doctors and nurses, pulmonologists, hematologists, hospitalists, and hospital infection-control personnel.

Health care professionals transport patients diagnosed with Ebola in the U.S. to special hospitals certified to treat Ebola patients. (Contact the CDC immediately for information for experimental vaccines, treatment protocols, and patient care and/or transfer to an appropriate facility.) The special hospitals were certified because of the problems experienced in a Texas hospital where the first patient in the U.S. was diagnosed with Ebola and subsequently spread the disease to hospital workers. Experimental medical treatments of Ebola infections include immune serum, antiviral drugs, possible blood transfusions, and supportive care in an intensive care hospital facility approved by the CDC to treat Ebola infections.

Healthcare workers need to avoid contact with the bodily fluids of their infected patients by taking strict precautions, such as wearing protective equipment.

Ebola virus disease is sometimes fatal. The sooner a person is given care, the better the chance they’ll survive.

 

 

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lab-test-ebola-diagnosis man-injection-ebola-vaccination
biohazard-dress-ebola-prevention patient-nurse-drip-ebola-risk-factor
girl-medical-checkup-exposed-ebola biohazard-dress-spray-ebola-transmission
patient-drip-recovery-ebola facts-about-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease

https://www.medicinenet.com/ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_hf/article.htm#what_is_the_medical_treatment_for_ebola_hemorrhagic_fever

https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/treatment/index.html

https://www.medicinenet.com/ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_hf/article.htm#what_types_of_health_care_professionals_treat_ebola_hemorrhagic_fever

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/ebola/

 

Ebola Diagnosis

It can be difficult to clinically distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis.

To determine whether Ebola virus infection is a possible diagnosis, there must be a combination of symptoms suggestive of EVD AND a possible exposure to EVD within 21 days before the onset of symptoms.

An exposure may include contact with:

  • Blood or body fluids from a person sick with or who died from EVD
  • Objects contaminated with blood or body fluids of a person sick with or who died from EVD
  • Infected fruit bats and primates (apes or monkeys)
  • Semen from a man who has recovered from EVD

If a person shows early signs of EVD and has had a possible exposure, he or she should be isolated (separated from other people) and public health authorities notified. Blood samples from the patient should be collected and tested to confirm infection. Ebola virus can be detected in blood after onset of symptoms, most notably fever. It may take up to three days after symptoms start for the virus to reach detectable levels. A positive laboratory test means that Ebola infection is confirmed. Public health authorities will conduct a public health investigation, including tracing of all possibly exposed contacts.

To confirm that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection,

Following diagnostic methods are used:

  • Antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Antigen-capture detection tests
  • Serum neutralization test
  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
  • Electron microscopy
  • Virus isolation by cell culture.

Careful consideration should be given to the selection of diagnostic tests, which take into account technical specifications, disease incidence and prevalence, and social and medical implications of test results. It is strongly recommended that diagnostic tests, which have undergone an independent and international evaluation, be considered for use.

Current WHO recommended tests include:

  • Automated or semi-automated nucleic acid tests (NAT) for routine diagnostic management.
  • Rapid antigen detection tests for use in remote settings where NATs are not readily available. These tests are recommended for screening purposes as part of surveillance activities, however reactive tests should be confirmed with NATs.

Preferred specimens for diagnosis include:

  • Whole blood collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) from live patients exhibiting symptoms.
  • Oral fluid specimen stored in universal transport medium collected from deceased patients or when blood collection is not possible.

Samples collected from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; laboratory testing on non-inactivated samples should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions. All biological specimens should be packaged using the triple packaging system when transported nationally and internationally.

 

 

man-carrying-child-Ebola-Overview man-painting-ebola-symptoms
blood-test-lab-ebola-causes patient-ebola-complication
patients-hospital-ebola-treatment man-injection-ebola-vaccination
biohazard-dress-ebola-prevention patient-nurse-drip-ebola-risk-factor
girl-medical-checkup-exposed-ebola biohazard-dress-spray-ebola-transmission
patient-drip-recovery-ebola facts-about-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease

https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/diagnosis/index.html

 

Ebola Complications

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) often has many complications

  • Multiple organ failures
  • Severe bleeding
  • Jaundice
  • Delirium
  • Shock
  • Seizures
  • Coma
  • Death (about 50%-100% of infected patients).

One reason the viruses are so deadly is that they interfere with the immune system’s ability to mount a defense. But scientists don’t understand why some people recover from Ebola and Marburg and others don’t.

For patients fortunate enough to survive Ebola hemorrhagic fever, recovery is slow. It may take months to regain weight and strength, and the viruses remain in the body for weeks.  

Survivors may experience

  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Hair loss
  • Hepatitis
  • Sensory changes
  • Inflammation of organs (for example, the testicles and the eyes).

Some may have Ebola linger in their semen for months and others may have the virus latently infect their eye(s).

Male patients may have detectable Ebola viruses in their semen for as long as six months after they survive the infection. Researchers consider the chance of being infected with Ebola from semen is very low; however, they recommend utilizing condoms for six months; some experts suggest a longer time.

Follow-up eye exams are likely to be important in patients who survive Ebola infections.

 

 

man-carrying-child-Ebola-Overview man-painting-ebola-symptoms
blood-test-lab-ebola-causes lab-test-ebola-diagnosis
patients-hospital-ebola-treatment man-injection-ebola-vaccination
biohazard-dress-ebola-prevention patient-nurse-drip-ebola-risk-factor
girl-medical-checkup-exposed-ebola biohazard-dress-spray-ebola-transmission
patient-drip-recovery-ebola facts-about-ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

https://www.medicinenet.com/ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_hf/article.htm#what_are_complications_of_ebola_hemorrhagic_fever

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ebola-virus/symptoms-causes/syc-20356258

 

 

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